Surface characterization of biomaterials is technically challenging the ideal characterization method for biomaterials offers three attributes surface sensitivity biomedical interpretability and biomedical relevance the electrostatic charge generated on a particle is proportional to the particle surface area which is the principle . Common to all particle probe methods is the fundamental concept that energetic particles are incident onto the sample and energetic particles exit from the sample the type of incident and exit particle may vary among the different techniques response outgoing particle generated by process between incident particle and sample surface. Surface area is an important metric for engineered nanoparticles because it influences reactivity and surface interactions with ligands specific surface area refers to the surface area of a powder normalized to mass or volume different methods measure different aspects of surface area. A basic guide to particle characterization particle size particle shape introduction and they may even be interrelated eg surface area and particle size for the purposes of this guide we will concentrate on two of the most significant and easy to measure properties particle size and particle shape . Note citations are based on reference standards however formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study the specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher classroom teacher institution or organization should be applied
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